Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

The Battle of Paraitakene was the second major battle fought between Eumenes of Cardia and Antigonus I “Monophthalmus” (“the One-Eyed”). It succeeded the battle of Orkynia (319 B.C.E.) and immediately preceded the decisive battle of Gabiene (316 B.C.E.). Prologue Eumenes of Cardia Before the Battle The spring/summer of 318 brought a wave of good fortune to Eumenes. It was at […]

Before Conquering the World: Four Distinguished Personalities Who Matured in Ancient Albania

Before Conquering the World: Four Distinguished Personalities Who Matured in Ancient Albania

Illyria, especially the part corresponding to Albania, was in antiquity constantly involved in the affairs of other states. Because of their geostrategic position, Illyrian lands often hosted famous personalities in search of glory. In many cases, such personalities used the territory of Albania as a way to jumpstart their military careers. The following are the four most distinguished personalities of […]

Roxana: The Light and Dark Sides of An Eastern Beauty

Roxana: The Light and Dark Sides of An Eastern Beauty

Roxana was the daughter of the Bactrian noble Oxyartes, born around 340 B.C.E. She became the first formal wife of Alexander III “the Great” in the spring of 327.  The circumstances surrounding Roxana’s marriage with the Macedonian invader are unclear. It may be that, before the marriage, Roxana, along with her mother and sister were captured by Alexander’s forces before […]