Cleopatra Eurydice: A Queen in the Midst of Plots and Intrigues

Cleopatra Eurydice was the last of the seven wives of king Philip of Macedon. She was a member of a noble family from the lower/coastal Macedon. Some then and many later believed that Philip’s marriage with Cleopatra threatened Alexander’s royal inheritance.  Cleopatra and her family were relative newcomers to the Argead court. However, her descent was held in high esteem. […]

Scerdilaidas: The History of a Master and Commander

Scerdilaidas was king of the Illyrian state of the Ardiaei during 218-206 B.C.E. Prior to his accession to the throne, he made a formidable career in the Illyrian military and in the Ardiaean court. Scerdilaidas was likely a brother or cousin of king Agron of the Ardiaei, who ruled during 250 – 231 B.C.E. During Agron’s rule, the Ardiaean state […]

Teuta: Queen of Illyria Who Challenged the Romans

Teuta was the queen of Ardiaei during the short but intense period 231-228 B.C.E. The Ardiaean state was the most powerful monarchy among the Illyrians. We know nothing about Teuta’s early life. She was born around 260, in an Illyrian royal household. At some point, she married Agron, then king of Ardiaei. The latter’s domain extended from river Narona (current […]

Adea Eurydice: The Teen Queen Who Shook an Empire

Adea Eurydice was born sometime between 338-335 B.C.E., to Amyntas IV, son of Perdiccas III, and Cynane, daughter of Philip II’s wife, Audata. She grew up without a father since, soon after birth, the newly crowned king Alexander III had Amyntas executed. Her mother Cynane, herself of Illyrian origin, dealt carefully with her education. Adea’s lessons, unlike those of other […]

Olympias of Epirus: The Surreal Story of a King’s Mother

Olympias of Epirus was born around 375 B.C.E. with the name Myrtale. She was the daughter of the Molossian king Neoptolemus in Epirus, part of the Aeacidae royal house. As for her mother, she is absent from sources, but some scholars have suggested that she was a Chaonian princess, in northwestern Epirus. This match makes sense when considering the Molossians’ […]

Illyrian Kings: A Handbook on Illyrian Monarchy; Main Rulers and Dynasties.

Illyrian kings are mentioned in few literal sources, even those written by ancient Greek and Roman authors, thus external and often hostile to Illyrians. As such, their names come up only in events concerning the Hellenes or Romans themselves. The absence of written records in Illyrian language (recognized as a spoken language) leaves inherent gaps in political developments that would […]

Pyrrhus of Epirus

Pyrrhus of Epirus: Lineage and Character Pyrrhus of Epirus (also known as Pyrrhus I, Pyrrhus, or Phyrrhus), was born in 319/318 B.C.E. in Epirus. He was the son of Aeacides, king of Epirus (ruled 331-316, 313) part of the ruling Epirot tribe of the Molossians, and Phthia, a noblewoman from Thessaly, daughter of Menon. Pyrrhus was also the second-cousin of […]

Bardylis: World Class King Who Missed the Spotlight

Bardylis (“Bardhyll” in modern Albanian language meaning “White-Star”) was king of the Illyrians during 393-358 B.C.E. He was born around 448 B.C.E. as a member of the Illyrian tribe of the Enchelei. The Enchelei inhabited primarily the area around lake Lychnidus (Ohrid). Background Although from a humble origin, Bardylis would soon become the ruler of many Illyrian tribes and form one of […]

Gentius, the last king of the Illyrians

Episode I: Gentius,  A New Young King Gentius was king of the Illyrians (Rex i Illyricorum) during 181-167 B.C.E. Gentius was a royal member of the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, son of Pleuratus and Eurydice. Thus, his state is referred either as the kingdom of Illyria or as the kingdom of the Ardiaei. According to Livy, Gentius had one […]