Three Epic Duels That Actually Happened in the Hellenistic Era

The Hellenistic Era swept three continents into perpetual wars for military supremacy. Among countless battles, there were several instances when military leaders themselves stepped in and engaged in hand-to-hand combat. Below, we publish three such epic duels as described by ancient authors themselves. Neoptolemus of Epirus vs Eumenes of Cardia Described by: Plutarch “In the meantime, Neoptolemus also was engaged […]

The Battle of Beneventum: The Untamed vs the Uncorrupted

The battle of Beneventum was the third and last battle fought between Pyrrhus of Epirus and the Roman Republic. It took place in Beneventum (modern Benevento) of Campania in 275 B.C.E. Prior to the battle, the place was known as Maleventum (meaning “bad event” as to suggest a place of bad omens). The Roman forces were led into the battle […]

Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

The Battle of Paraitakene was the second major battle fought between Eumenes of Cardia and Antigonus I “Monophthalmus” (“the One-Eyed”). It succeeded the battle of Orkynia (319 B.C.E.) and immediately preceded the decisive battle of Gabiene (316 B.C.E.). Prologue Eumenes of Cardia Before the Battle The spring/summer of 318 brought a wave of good fortune to Eumenes. It was at […]

Battle of Asculum: The Truth About Pyrrhic Victory

The battle of Asculum was fought in 279 B.C.E., between Pyrrhus of Epirus and the Roman Republic. The battle took place near Asculum (modern Ascoli Piceno) at a marshy terrain near river Carapelle.  Prologue Pyrrhus before the Battle of Asculum After the victory at the battle of Heraclea (280 B.C.E.), Pyrrhus and his army wintered in Tarentum. During this time […]

Second Illyrian War: Rome’s Show of Force in Eastern Front

The Second Illyrian War was fought between the Romans and the Illyrians in 219 B.C.E. This war took place nine years after the First Illyrian War when the Romans first established a foothold on the Illyrian coast. As such, the Second Illyrian War was in continuation with the Roman expansion east of the Apennines.  Before the War Rome before the […]

Battle of Heraclea: The Romans Find Their Match

The Battle of Heraclea was fought in 280 B.C.E., between the forces commanded by Pyrrhus of Epirus and those of the Roman Republic led by consul Publius Valerius Laevinus. This battle was the first of the three major battles the renowned Epirote general fought against the Romans. It was also the first instance when the Romans encountered war elephants in […]

The Istrian War

Episode I: An Ignored War Classical sources suggest that the Romans fought a brief war during 221-220 B.C.E. against the Istrians. According to these accounts, the war was caused by piratical assaults from the Istri against the Roman ships in northern Adriatic. Also, it is suggested that the Istri may have been collaborating as allies with Demetrius of Pharus against […]