Three Epic Duels That Actually Happened in the Hellenistic Era

Three Epic Duels That Actually Happened in the Hellenistic Era

The Hellenistic Era swept three continents into perpetual wars for military supremacy. Among countless battles, there were several instances when military leaders themselves stepped in and engaged in hand-to-hand combat. Below, we publish three such epic duels as described by ancient authors themselves. Neoptolemus of Epirus vs Eumenes of Cardia Described by: Plutarch “In the meantime, Neoptolemus also was engaged […]

Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

The Battle of Paraitakene was the second major battle fought between Eumenes of Cardia and Antigonus I “Monophthalmus” (“the One-Eyed”). It succeeded the battle of Orkynia (319 B.C.E.) and immediately preceded the decisive battle of Gabiene (316 B.C.E.). Prologue Eumenes of Cardia Before the Battle The spring/summer of 318 brought a wave of good fortune to Eumenes. It was at […]

First Illyrian War: Roman Republic’s First Military Engagement in Eastern Adriatic

First Illyrian War: Roman Republic’s First Military Engagement in Eastern Adriatic

The First Illyrian War was fought between the Romans and the Illyrians during 229-228 B.C.E. Rather than the actual combats, scholars have tended to matters related to reasons that pushed the Romans into this war and the nature of Roman possessions after the war. The First Illyrian War represents Rome’s first military campaign east of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. […]

The Istrian War

The Istrian War

Episode I: An Ignored War Classical sources suggest that the Romans fought a brief war during 221-220 B.C.E. against the Istrians. According to these accounts, the war was caused by piratical assaults from the Istri against the Roman ships in northern Adriatic. Also, it is suggested that the Istri may have been collaborating as allies with Demetrius of Pharus against […]