Dyrrachium: Port & Gateway between West & East

Dyrrachium: Port & Gateway between West & East

Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) refers to the ancient city that flourished on the territory of the current coastal city of Durrës in Albania. The name is formed by the root “Dyrrach” followed either by the typical Latin suffix “ium”. Before appearing in Latin sources it appeared on ancient Greek literature as “Dyrrachion” (“Dyrrach” + the typical ancient Greek suffix “ion”). In […]

Dimal: An Intriguing City Where Civilizations Clashed

Dimal: An Intriguing City Where Civilizations Clashed

The Illyrian city of Dimal (or Dimallum) was apparently founded sometime during the first half of the IV-th century B.C.E. However, Hammond (1968) credits Pyrrhus of Epirus or his successors for the foundation of Dimal. The Epirote ruler may have established a city here sometime in 290 B.C.E. The theory that credits Pyrrhus with the foundation of Dimal deserves attention […]

Apollonia: the Mighty Colony in Illyria

Apollonia: the Mighty Colony in Illyria

Apollonia was one of the most powerful Hellenic colonies in the Adriatic. It occupied a strategic position allowing for communication with the Illyrian, Greek, and Roman world. Thus, it led to notable economic prosperity but also put the city, on several occasions, in the midst of inter-state conflicts.  Early Development Apollonia was founded in about 620 B.C.E., as a Corinthian […]

Epirus before the reign of Alexander the Molossian

Epirus before the reign of Alexander the Molossian

Epirus was the name of an ancient region in the lands corresponding to current southern Albania and northwestern Greece. The name of Epirus seems to originate from the ancient Greek word “Epeiros” which means “land” or “continent”. It is clear that this term came from an islanders’ perspective, namely the Greek islanders settling in the many islands off Epirus’ coast. […]

Poetovio Before the Marcomannic Wars: from legionary camp to colonia Ulpia

Poetovio Before the Marcomannic Wars: from legionary camp to colonia Ulpia

Geographical OutlinePoetovio (Ptuj in Slovenia) was the only autonomous town in Pannonia founded by Trajan; it was the second largest city in Upper Pannonia (after Carnuntum) and certainly one of the most important in the province. Throughout its history it was the main provincial financial centre; in the first half of the 1st century AD, it was most probably the […]

The Roman Conquest of Illyricum (Dalmatia and Pannonia) and the Problem of the Northeastern Border of Italy[1].

The Roman Conquest of Illyricum (Dalmatia and Pannonia) and the Problem of the Northeastern Border of Italy[1].

The history of the Illyrians and Illyria, variously understood in modern scholarship, is divided into different phases, of which the first, lasting to the collapse of the Illyrian kingdom in 168 BC, may be explained in terms of (varying) alliances of tribes and peoples of common or similar ethnic background, speaking similar languages. Extreme theses, such as pan-Illyrism, which saw […]

Appian and Dio on the Illyrian Wars of Octavian

Appian and Dio on the Illyrian Wars of Octavian

Appian devoted twelve out of thirty chapters (16-28) of his Illyrike, i.e. less than half of this narrative, to Octavian’s Illyrian Wars of 35-33 B.C. These wars, which were fought in several campaigns in different regions of Illyricum, were described by him in great detail, his main and possibly only source having been Augustus’ Commentari. Appian himself expressly claimed that […]