Cassander: The Self-Made King of (What Was Left Of) Macedon

Cassander was born in 355 B.C.E. as the son of Antipater. He was a member of the so-called Iolaid House, an obscure family of high political prominence in Macedon. The house drew its privileges and identity from one Iolaus who had served as archon for Perdiccas II (r. 448-413) at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. From then on, the […]

Roxana: The Light and Dark Sides of An Eastern Beauty

Roxana was the daughter of the Bactrian noble Oxyartes, born around 340 B.C.E. She became the first formal wife of Alexander III “the Great” in the spring of 327.  The circumstances surrounding Roxana’s marriage with the Macedonian invader are unclear. It may be that, before the marriage, Roxana, along with her mother and sister were captured by Alexander’s forces before […]

Albanian Waterfalls: Top 10 Waterfalls to Sight in Albania

The following list included the ten most beautiful Albanian waterfalls, fine, elegant accessories of the nations’ nature.  1. Grunas Waterfall Grunas is Albania’s postcard waterfall, located near the village of Theth in northern Albania. The Alpine waters plunge from a height of 30 meters (98 feet) into an ice-cold, natural pond. The overall humidity reflects a constant rainbow during summer […]

Polyperchon: Unlucky or Unskilled General?

Polyperchon was a general who served in the ranks of Alexander III the Great and later fought for imperial rule. He was born sometime in the time frame 394 – 380 B.C.E., as the son of Simmias from Tymphaia, a rough and remote area under the Pindus. Tymphaia was incorporated into the Macedonian state in 350. Yet, the Tymphaei/Tymphaios remained […]

Amantia: Ancient Capital & Federate of the Illyrian River Dwellers

Amantia was an ancient city and a small state inhabited by the southern Illyrian tribe of the Amantes. The city stood on a peak in the Kudhësit mountain range, current southwest Albania, 613 meters above sea level. Amantia was also used to name the region and federative state controlled by the Amantes, consisting mainly of the middle valleys of the […]

Battle of Asculum: The Truth About Pyrrhic Victory

The battle of Asculum was fought in 279 B.C.E., between Pyrrhus of Epirus and the Roman Republic. The battle took place near Asculum (modern Ascoli Piceno) at a marshy terrain near river Carapelle.  Prologue Pyrrhus before the Battle of Asculum After the victory at the battle of Heraclea (280 B.C.E.), Pyrrhus and his army wintered in Tarentum. During this time […]

Cynane: The Badass Queen of Early Hellenistic Age

Cynane was born around 358 B.C.E. as the daughter of Philip II of Macedon and his first or second wife, Audata/Eurydice. She was the eldest of Philip’s daughters, inheriting from his father the belonging into the prestigious royal house of the Argeads. Cynane’s maternal line, often overlooked, was also reputable. Her mother Audata was an Illyrian princess, either a daughter […]

Second Illyrian War: Rome’s Show of Force in Eastern Front

The Second Illyrian War was fought between the Romans and the Illyrians in 219 B.C.E. This war took place nine years after the First Illyrian War when the Romans first established a foothold on the Illyrian coast. As such, the Second Illyrian War was in continuation with the Roman expansion east of the Apennines.  Before the War Rome before the […]

Albanian Canyons: Top 10 Canyons to Traverse in Albania

Among many natural attractions across the country, Albanian canyons provide lots of opportunities for travelers in search of unique adventurers. In this piece, we highlight Albania’s most attractive canyons; raising awareness in favor of the preservation of such formations. 1. Osum Canyon The majestic canyon of Osum River is the largest in the country, rightfully deemed “Albania’s Grand Canyon”. It […]

Ancient Rhizon: A Typical Illyrian City and Royal Residence

The ancient city of Rhizon (corresponding to modern Risan in Montenegro) was located on the northernmost inlet of the modern Gulf of Kotor. This gulf was the one that the Venetians called the “Bocche di Cattaro” and what the Romans called the “Sinus Rhizonicus”. This gulf clearly took the name of the most important city on its shore; that city […]