Iapodes: The Ancient Dwellers of Croatia and Bosnia

Strabo in his Seventh book mentions the cities of the Iapodes: Metullum (likely Vinica in Josipdol), Arupium (Vitali in Prozor), Monetium (likely near Brinje), and Avendo (Kompolje). Other sources mention the cities of Terponos (Likely Trojverhi in Plashke), Ancus (likely Strazhbenica near Verbacit), Ausancalio (likely Medaku), Bivium (likely Josipdoli), and Epidotium (likely Kvarte). The poet Tibulus (55-19 B.C.E.) sing to […]

Audoleon: The Wealthiest King of Paeonia

Audoleon was king of the kingdom of Paeonia during the late IV-early III century B.C.E. He remains the most renowned king of Paeonia despite the lack of sources to solidly back up this claim. Audoleon’s early reign Audoleon succeeded his father Patraus to the throne of the Paeonian kingdom in about 310 B.C.E. Diodorus reports that this year Audoleon was […]

Dassaretis: A Short Story of an Ancient Scorched Land

Dassaretia or Dassaretis (or Dassaretae) was an ancient region located in the area that currently corresponds to the southwest Greek border or southeast Albania. The region was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Dexari (i.e. the Dassareti), just south of the tribe of the Enchelees; that is, immediately south of the lakes Lychnidos (Ohrid) and Lyncestis (Great & Small […]

Kingdom of Paeonia: The Ancient State of North Macedonia

The kingdom of Paeonia was created sometime during the late V – early IV century B.C.E. It was inhabited by the Paeonians, an Indo-European/Illyrian population made up of several smaller tribes. Before creating their kingdom, as attested by sources, the Paeonian tribes occupied way larger territories than that held by the kingdom. However, due to pressures from the Persians, Thracians, […]

Three Epic Duels That Actually Happened in the Hellenistic Era

The Hellenistic Era swept three continents into perpetual wars for military supremacy. Among countless battles, there were several instances when military leaders themselves stepped in and engaged in hand-to-hand combat. Below, we publish three such epic duels as described by ancient authors themselves. Neoptolemus of Epirus vs Eumenes of Cardia Described by: Plutarch “In the meantime, Neoptolemus also was engaged […]

The Battle of Beneventum: The Untamed vs the Uncorrupted

The battle of Beneventum was the third and last battle fought between Pyrrhus of Epirus and the Roman Republic. It took place in Beneventum (modern Benevento) of Campania in 275 B.C.E. Prior to the battle, the place was known as Maleventum (meaning “bad event” as to suggest a place of bad omens). The Roman forces were led into the battle […]

Eumenes of Cardia: The Art of a Leaderless Leadership

Eumenes of Cardia was born in c. 362 as the son of a waggoner in the Thracian Chersonesus (current Gallipoli). His father was a member of the highest local family in the peninsula.  Unlike common belief, Eumenes was likely of Scythian origin and not Greek. He received a notable and extensive education in both literature and athletics. Eumenes’ father apparently […]

Battle of Paraitakene: The Mighty Clash In the Persian Wilderness

The Battle of Paraitakene was the second major battle fought between Eumenes of Cardia and Antigonus I “Monophthalmus” (“the One-Eyed”). It succeeded the battle of Orkynia (319 B.C.E.) and immediately preceded the decisive battle of Gabiene (316 B.C.E.). Prologue Eumenes of Cardia Before the Battle The spring/summer of 318 brought a wave of good fortune to Eumenes. It was at […]