Buthrotum: The High & Lows of a Splendid Civilization

The ancient city of Buthrotum (modern Butrint) stood three km from the Corfu Strait, on the southern edge of Butrint Lake/Lagoon. A narrow channel, the Vivari Channel, connected Buthrotum and its port (ancient Pelodes Limen in the Butrint Lake) with the open sea. The citadel itself stood in a small peninsula washed on all sides by the safe waters of […]

Cassander: The Self-Made King of (What Was Left Of) Macedon

Cassander was born in 355 B.C.E. as the son of Antipater. He was a member of the so-called Iolaid House, an obscure family of high political prominence in Macedon. The house drew its privileges and identity from one Iolaus who had served as archon for Perdiccas II (r. 448-413) at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. From then on, the […]

Roxana: The Light and Dark Sides of An Eastern Beauty

Roxana was the daughter of the Bactrian noble Oxyartes, born around 340 B.C.E. She became the first formal wife of Alexander III “the Great” in the spring of 327.  The circumstances surrounding Roxana’s marriage with the Macedonian invader are unclear. It may be that, before the marriage, Roxana, along with her mother and sister were captured by Alexander’s forces before […]

Albanian Waterfalls: Top 10 Waterfalls to Sight in Albania

The following list included the ten most beautiful Albanian waterfalls, fine, elegant accessories of the nations’ nature.  1. Grunas Waterfall Grunas is Albania’s postcard waterfall, located near the village of Theth in northern Albania. The Alpine waters plunge from a height of 30 meters (98 feet) into an ice-cold, natural pond. The overall humidity reflects a constant rainbow during summer […]

Polyperchon: Unlucky or Unskilled General?

Polyperchon was a general who served in the ranks of Alexander III the Great and later fought for imperial rule. He was born sometime in the time frame 394 – 380 B.C.E., as the son of Simmias from Tymphaia, a rough and remote area under the Pindus. Tymphaia was incorporated into the Macedonian state in 350. Yet, the Tymphaei/Tymphaios remained […]

Amantia: Ancient Capital & Federate of the Illyrian River Dwellers

Amantia was an ancient city and a small state inhabited by the southern Illyrian tribe of the Amantes. The city stood on a peak in the Kudhësit mountain range, current southwest Albania, 613 meters above sea level. Amantia was also used to name the region and federative state controlled by the Amantes, consisting mainly of the middle valleys of the […]

Battle of Asculum: The Truth About Pyrrhic Victory

The battle of Asculum was fought in 279 B.C.E., between Pyrrhus of Epirus and the Roman Republic. The battle took place near Asculum (modern Ascoli Piceno) at a marshy terrain near river Carapelle.  Prologue Pyrrhus before the Battle of Asculum After the victory at the battle of Heraclea (280 B.C.E.), Pyrrhus and his army wintered in Tarentum. During this time […]

Cynane: The Badass Queen of Early Hellenistic Age

Cynane was born around 358 B.C.E. as the daughter of Philip II of Macedon and his first or second wife, Audata/Eurydice. She was the eldest of Philip’s daughters, inheriting from his father the belonging into the prestigious royal house of the Argeads. Cynane’s maternal line, often overlooked, was also reputable. Her mother Audata was an Illyrian princess, either a daughter […]